The internet is an amazing service, one without most of us can’t live. We work, we socialize, we shop, and we watch movies thanks to it.
This being said, it is an amazing discovery while it works appropriate to our wants and needs. However, we all have that moment when we really needed to be connected to the online world, and the router let us down. I know that you totally agree with me that to be in this situation is anything but fun.
This means that even if you have an internet plan with a very reputable internet provider, the router that it rents you, not only that it will cost you money that you could save if you buy your own device, but it will also not work as good as a very performant one.
Today, I decided to take the Verizon Fios case. They offer great internet subscriptions, and it will be a shame not to enjoy it due to a defective router. This being said, let’s take a look at the best routers for Verizon Fios available on the market.
Best Routers For Verizon Fios Comparison Chart:
Let’s take a look at the comparison chart and see what are some of the main features of each router before going into the full reviews.
|Image||Product||Minimum Internet Speed||Dimensions||Weight||Warranty||Pricing|
|Linksys WRT AC1900||600 Mbps||9.8 x 7.7 x 2 inches||1.77 pounds||1 Year||Check On Amazon|
|NETGEAR Nighthawk R7000||600 Mbps||11.2 x 7.3 x 2 inches||1.65 pounds||Requires Registration||Check On Amazon|
|ASUS AC1900 Dual Band||1900 Mbps||6.3 x 3.3 x 8.6 inches||1.4 pounds||3 Years Limited||Check On Amazon|
|TP-LINK Archer C7||450 Mbps||9.6 x 6.3 x 1.3 inches||1.9 pounds||2 Years Limited||Check On Amazon|
|NETGEAR Nighthawk R9000||800 Mbps||8.8 x 6.6 x 2.9 inches||4.11 pounds||Requires Registration||Check On Amazon|
|MOTOROLA MR2600||800 Mbps||7.1 x 12 x 7.1 inches||1.1 pounds||2 Years||Check On Amazon|
|Linksys Dual-Band AC1900||600 Mbps||10 x 7.2 x 2.2 inches||2.05 pounds||1 Year||Check On Amazon|
|NETGEAR Nighthawk R8000||600 Mbps||14.4 x 11.5 x 3.6 inches||1.03 pounds||Requires Registration||Check On Amazon|
|OnHub Wireless Router||600 Mbps||4.1 x 4.6 x 7.5 inches||1.9 pounds||2 Years Limited||Check On Amazon|
|Ubiquiti Labs AmpliFi HD||N/A||3.9 x 3.9 x 3.9 inches||14.4 ounces||1 Year||Check On Amazon|
Top 10 Best Routers For Verizon Fios Reviews:
#1 Linksys WRT AC1900
The first Verizon compatible router that I want to talk about is the Linksys WRT1900ACS. In my opinion, almost all routers look like little space ships, but this model is just like taken out of a Sci-Fi movie.
However, how it looks is not the only reason why it is on my list. It actually is 4.3 times faster than what N technology has to offer.
With its dual-band, you can go up 1800 Mbps (600 Mbps at 2.4 GHz and 1300 Mbps 5 GHz). Because of this and also due to its 4 very powerful antennas, you will be able to use if for intensive WiFi usage, both at home and offices.
It has a dual-core (1.6 GHz CPU) that will allow very fast data processing. Therefore multiple users will be able to use it at the same time for streaming, online games, or other big data transfers.
Speaking of data transfers, it allows USB 3.0 usage.
Last, but not least, you can use it and add parental control layers, monitor any network activity and also create guest networks that are password protected.
- Very fast internet connection;
- Access to many features;
- Great design.
- You cannot block individual websites.
#2 NETGEAR Nighthawk R7000
I’ve said it before, and I will say it again, I am a NETGEAR fan, and their R7000 model doesn’t change my opinion on their high-qualitative products.
Due to its dual-band, it offers the possibility of a very fast internet connection 600 Mbps +1300 Mbps and also a very wide 1800 sq. ft wireless coverage.
Not only that, but you can actually have 30 devices connected at the same time, working online on issues including big data procession. This means that you can have all the smartphones, tablets, smart TVs, game stations and whatever else you have in your house connected with no problem
It offers direct Ethernet connection for any game consoles or wired PC that don’t need WiFi
Probably one of the coolest things about this NETGEAR is its compatibility with devices as Amazon Alexa. This means that you can say what you want it to do and it will do it.
- Has parental control options;
- Offers USB connection;
- Can be controlled with Alexa;
- It comes with a BitDefender antivirus protection.
- It can be considered expensive.
#3 ASUS AC1900 Dual Band
The next product that I want to talk about is one produced by Asus. Just as its predecessors, this also has a dual-band, but its combined speed is bigger – up to 1900 Mbps.
Another great aspect is its 1 GigaHertz dual-core CPU that is capable of enabling quick multitasking. This is possible due to its capacity to assign separate paths for Wifi and USB data.
As network standards, this Verizon compatible router has them all, including IPv4 and IPv6.
The setup is very easy to handle due to its ASUS WRT web-based interface. Also, for a smooth network management, you can use the ASUS router app.
- Has parental control;
- Has all important standards;
- It can be managed through the Asus router app.
- It works better for 2.4 GHz than for 5.0 GHz.
#4 TP-LINK Archer C7 AC1750
In my search for Verizon FiOS compatible routers, I’ve stumbled upon the C7 model from TP-LINK.
What made me look deeper into this model is its capacity to allow multiple 4K streaming sessions at the same time, but also the fact that it reduces the buffering enhancing to 1750 Mbps AC Wi-Fi.
It has Gigabit Ethernet ports. This means that it is perfect for any internet subscription and that it will let you connect your wired gadgets instantly.
Also, it allows you to use a USB port for a better accessibility. Since we are at the accessibility level, TP-Link also offers an app for a much easier setup of the network.
- TP-Link Tether app;
- Non-stop technical support;
- Permits multiple 4K streaming sessions;/
- Can disconnect with no reason.
#5 NETGEAR Nighthawk R9000
A model that fights for the absolute best router for the FiOS gigabit position is produced by NETGEAR and is the R9000 model.
It is a little more different than the other models that I’ve presented so far because it actually has a tri-band that supports 800 Mbps + 1733 Mbps + 4600 Mbps for 60Ghz band plans. Also, all this incredible internet speed can wireless cover an amazingly big space – 2500 square feet.
It can support up to 45 gadgets using the wireless network at the same time, making it great for workspaces. It offers the capacity of plugging in devices directly into it due to its wired ethernet ports and also through two 3.0 USB ports.
This router comes packed with 4 amplified antennas and a 1.7GHz processor. As for advanced features, it can be controlled using Amazon Alexa.
- Incredible internet speed;
- Compatible with Alexa;
- Supports many devices connected at the same time.
- It is expensive.
#6 MOTOROLA MR2600
Motorola is a leader of the modem/router domain, and therefore I had to add a model in my list of Verizon FiOS compatible routers.
The one that I decided to add is the Motorola AC2600 router, and the reason for my decision is that it is a high-speed capable router link among all the WiFi and Ethernet gadgets and whatever Ethernet-capable modem that you pick for internet access.
This MR2600 model offers very high-speed and also an extended range of the connection.
It offers a dual-band WiFi connection but also gigabit Ethernet ports. This way, you can connect all possible home devices to it.
Due to its 4 Gigabit LAN ports but also its WiFi spread, you can do streaming on multiple devices at the same time. The increased WiFi coverage is possible because of its external antennas that are responsible for both the 2.4 GHz and the 5 GHz connections.
- Very advanced WiFi technology;
- Very good wireless coverage;
- IPv4 and IPv6 standards;
- Very good price;
- DLNA media sharing support.
- Some rebooting might be necessary from time to time.
#7 Linksys Dual-Band AC1900 Wifi Router
Let’s take a look at another Linksys router. This is a multi-user model that will permit more than 15 devices to be connected at the same time to its wireless network that can spread on 1500 square feet.
The good part is that all the devices that will use the connection will be able to enjoy the internet for 4K streaming, online games, and other purposes at the same time without any buffering interference.
This router permits a very good combined internet speed – 600 Mbps (2.4 GHz) + 1300 Mbps (5 GHz).
All the settings can be controlled using the Linksys App, making it very easy to make the initial installation and other possible modifications that you might want in the future.
- Supports multiple devices connected at the same time;
- Great for 4K streaming;
- No buffering;
- Easy installation.
- Not very good parental control.
#8 NETGEAR R8000
This is the last Verizon compatible router from NETGEAR that I will talk about today and is probably the best one that I’ve tried from this company.
Their R8000 model is actually a tri-band one that combined offers an incredible speed (600 Mbps + 1300 Mbps + 1300 Mbps) for a very big area – it covers up to 3500 sq. ft. of wireless coverage.
It supports up to 50 devices working at the same time and using the internet for 4K streaming or playing games.
Also, you can use it to directly plug-in your computers of game stations because it comes with Ethernet ports.
As technologies worth mentioning are its compatibility with Amazon Alexa, Smart Connect, or Dynamic QoS.
It comes with an anti-virus protection powered by BitDefender but also a parental control.
- You can create personal cloud storage;
- Compatible with Alexa;
- Has a parental control app;
- It comes with an anti-virus protection.
- It is not cheap.
#9 OnHub Wireless Router
If you think that what you’ve read so far is cool, just wait and see what I’ve prepared for the last two positions.
This Verizon compatible router is a TP-Link one that, with a little help from Google, was turned into a very beautiful and also powerful device.
First of all, it provides extremely fast internet due to its dual-band (up to 1900 Mbps) that will allow you to play online games, stream movies and download big files at the same time.
The WiFi coverage is also a great one – 2500 sq. ft. This means that you won’t have absolutely any problem with moving from one room to another one.
What is truly amazing is the fact that it allows more than 100 devices to connect to its wireless network at the same time, but also the fact that you can create a different guest network.
For an easy setup and control over the router, all you need to do is to use the Google WiFi App directly from your smartphone.
- Incredible speed;
- Supports more than 100 users at the same time;
- Has a 4.0HS Bluetooth;
- Absolutely amazing price;
- Possibility of sharing devices such as Chromecast with your friends.
- It might have some issues and disconnect itself from time to time.
#10 Ubiquiti Labs AmpliFi HD WiFi Router
The last product that I want to talk about is not just a WiFi router but a full home WiFi system. This complex gadget has four Gigabit Ethernet ports, one WAN port, and even a touchscreen display. Crazy right?
And the crazy doesn’t stop here. It offers a standard WiFi coverage of 6000 square feet, but this can be increased by the simple addition of MeshPoints or other routers.
As you already could realize, this is not just any router. Actually, this model uses multiple self-configuring radios and also an advanced WiFi antenna technology to produce an omnipresent and reliable WiFi coverage to your home network.
You won’t have any problems to use this router’s WiFi connection for streaming 4K videos, download big data files, and playing online games.
The setup is very easily done with the help of the AmpliFi app that is available for both iOS and Android operating systems. It actually should not take you more than 5 minutes to do this.
- Very advanced technology;
- Very good value for money;
- Easy to install and control;
- More than a WiFi router.
- The mesh points don’t provide Ethernet ports.
Everything There is to Know about Wireless Connections
As I’ve stated at the beginning of the article, today all routers that you should take into consideration, have at least two radio bands. This means that they have a 2.4GHz band and a 5GHz one.
The 2.4GHz band works at a lower rate than the 5GHz band. Therefore it offers a better range because it is more proficient at penetrating obstacles such as walls. Yet, it doesn’t offer the high-speed access that the 5GHz band does.
Furthermore, the 2.4GHz WiFi band needs to compete with other gadgets in the home or neighborhood that use the equivalent frequency, such as microwaves, Bluetooth media, or wireless phones.
This being said, it is great to be used when browsing online or posting on social media, but it is not so great on watching online moves or playing online games.
For these purposes, the 5GHz band allows better throughput with insignificant signal obstruction. Usually, dual-band routers permit you to specify a band for particular purposes and clients. This means the better the function of both bands.
However, today you can even buy tri-band routers that use three radios (one at 2.4 GHz and two and 5GHz).
What are Wireless Protocols
Let’s start from the beginning. First of all, WiFi Ethernet networks work with 802.11 protocols to transmit and collect data. The most popularly used WiFi protocol, the 802.11ac, permits for maximum, but theoretical, data rates of up to 5,400 Mbps. It operates on both the bands (2.4GHz and 5GHz).
It uses what is called the “Multiple Input Multiple Output” technology, which works with the help of various antennas to transmit and receive up to 8 spatial streams. This results in an intensified performance. It also promotes beamforming, which is a technology that sends WiFi signals straight to a client and not broadcasting in all the places. This permits the router to select the most effective radio band based on network transfers, band availability, and also range.
The 802.11ac protocol also allows downstream MIMO technology, which is intended to provide bandwidth for multiple gadgets together and not sequentially. This translates into up to four clients that can have their data streams rather than waiting to acquire data from the router. However, for the MU-MIMO to actually work, both the router and the clients must contain MU-MIMO WiFi circuitry. You should understand that MU-MIMO routers are broadly accessible, but client devices haven’t caught on on this technology.
You can identify the 802.11ac routers by looking at their labels. If you see notifications such as AC1200 or AC3200, they are part of this protocol. This indicates the ideal maximum speed the router can have. To give you an example, let’s talk about a router that can achieve a maximum of 450 Mbps on the 2.4GHz band and 1300 Mbps on the 5GHz band. This kind of router is recognized as an AC1750 router.
The latest WiFi protocol is the 802.11ax and is also known as WiFi 6 or High-Efficiency Wireless. This is an evolution of the 802.11ac technology, which guarantees enhanced throughput rates – 4.8 Gbps, but also fewer network bottlenecks, more comprehensive client capability, and some better wireless technologies, including what is known as “Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access”) and also “Target Wake Time.”
Also, the 802.11ax protocol makes use of previously available radio frequencies to produce a faster 2.4 GHz achievement, using “pure” uplink and also downlink bandwidth control to implement improved Quality of Service (QoS).
It additionally offers both uplinks and also downlinks MU-MIMO streaming. This is important because 802.11ac supports just downlink MU-MIMO.
However, there are a few 802.11ax routers accessible now; client gadgets aren’t expected to appear very soon. Yet, the 802.11ax is compatible with the generations from behind and will operate on devices that use 802.11a/b/g/n/ac WiFi radios.
Important Factors Of Buying Routers
All the proposed routers from this article have both wired and wireless capabilities to establish connections with multiple client gadgets such as smartphones, tablets, laptops, PCs, gaming consoles, smart TVs, home assistants, and so on.
To reach the maximum potential speed on your home router, the best connection from the client device to the router is made through a LAN port, meaning a wired Ethernet. Another way would be through a 5Ghz WiFi band.
If you do connect through the 2.4Ghz band, the benefit would be that you will get a longer broadcast coverage range, but the speed would be much lower than when connecting through the 5Ghz band.
For a better understanding of what I just said, let me present to you a rough estimation of the common speed you should anticipate concerning the type of connection between one of your devices and the router.
- Your client device is working on the 2.4Ghz WiFi band. In this case, you should expect an average speed in the 40-70 Mbps range. This will depend on the distance from the router, the obstacles on the way, such as walls, but also types of client devices used).
- Your client device is working on the 5Ghz WiFi band. In this situation, you should expect an average speed of 150-300 Mbps. Of course, the same applies as above when it comes to distance, obstacles, or device type.
- Your client device is connected with a wired Ethernet cable directly to a Gigabit LAN port from the router. In this situation, you should expect speed in the range of 900-940 Mbps. However, even the speed is way greater this way; not all devices can be connected through Ethernet cables. For example, your smartphone, tablet, or Macbook will only work on WiFi.
Of course, the numbers above may vary depending on the surrounding circumstances, type of client, the WiFi card/chipset used, and so on.
How to Enlarge Your Wireless Coverage
If you have a big house with many rooms and multiple floors, you might find yourself in the situations of encountering what is called “dead zones of WiFi.” This means that in these areas, the router cannot reach to offer its coverage.
You don’t have to despair because there are solutions to these kinds of problems. For example, an easy fix would be to buy a wireless range extender that will pick up the WiFi signal from your router Wi-Fi, which will amplify it, and then it will rebroadcast it.
These products can be bought in desktop and also plug-in variations, and are easy to install.
However, they do have weaknesses, though. The signal that it is re-broadcasted is usually half of the strength of what the main router can offer. Also, most of these build a different network that performs seamless roaming within your home in a difficult way.
WiFi Mesh Network Systems
It is safe to assume that a range extender doesn’t satisfy you. In this case, you should consider improving your network with a WiFi mesh system.
This means a technology that is capable of offering an easy method to fill WiFi dead zones from your home without the necessity for supplementary wiring, access points, or range extenders. They use extension nodes or satellites, in order to extend your WiFi signal beyond a more generous space than most routers.
What is Verizon Fios, and What is Their Offer?
First of all, Fios stands for Fiber Optic Service and represents a service containing internet, TV, and telephone operated by Verizon.
The company was founded in 2005, and from then till now, it grew and became along with Comcast and Spectrum, one of the most popular service providers of this kind from the US.
Ranking as number one for the last 6 years, Fios by Verizon offers only 100% fiber-optic networks. Because of this, they can give you one of the fastest internet plans you can find today. This translates into crazy fast data transitions, 4K movie streaming, online video games, and any other activity that includes internet connections.
It should go without saying, but I will say it nevertheless. You won’t know what buffering is while using the internet provided by this company
Also, Verizon offers great TV customizable plans, a Fios TV app, and also a phone package for both local and business calls.
Reasons Why you Should Buy Your Own Router
There are plenty of reasons why you should be the owner of your router and don’t just settle with what you receive. Let’s discuss each one separately and try to really understand the benefits.
Reduce Your Rental Expenses
Usually, the price for renting a modem or a router from your internet provider doesn’t look like much compared to other expenses that you daily make, so most probably you don’t even take into consideration.
But have you calculated how much that sum means in a year? I will tell you. More than a pair of good brand sneakers, or the price of a good watch, or even the price of a good bottle of perfume.
So why not use it to buy yourself or a loved one something nice instead of spending them on a renting fee?
Faster WiFi Connection
If you rent a router from Verizon, you will be stuck with its capabilities, and you could realize that your plan can actually perform better than what the router can do.
You should look out and buy a powerful router that will perform fast and smoothly without any buffering interference. It would be a shame to pay for an internet plan at one of the providers of the fastest internet in the country and receive 50% of its capacity.
Better WiFi Coverage
Not all routers offer the same coverage capabilities. This means that you may have an amazing internet connection in one room and a terrible, next to none in another one.
What Verizon offers is a standard router, but what if your house isn’t standard?
Usually, the routers provided by Verizon have basic security. However, if you buy your own, you can pick models that come with antivirus protection, offers you the possibility of creating a different network for your guests or parental control.
You can even find models that can be controlled with Alexa or from your smartphone while using an app.
Buyer’s Guide – Verizon Fios Compatible Routers
I bet that your head is spinning from all this information, and actually, after reading so much, you still don’t have a clue of what you should actually buy. So let’s talk about the most important factors that you need to take into consideration, and I promise you that by the end you will finish this buyer’s guide you will be one step closer to your dream router.
Radio bands: You already know that the 2.4GHz and the 5GHz bands are the two ones from the radio frequency spectrum that WiFi uses to send its signals, and also, you know how each one is used. The good part is that the new routers are mostly dual bands, but the speed is different from router to router.
So, pick the router that uses these radio bands for what you need.
Dual or tri-band: You know that a tri-band router has another 5GHz band. This means that it is more powerful and therefore you will have better speed, but as you can imagine, this advantage doesn’t come cheap. So think about if you actually need to spend more money on a brand that you most likely will not use.
Channel: Each band comes with a set of channels for you to use. Usually, the routers pick them for you automatically. However, there are cases in which you can stumble upon channels with less intrusion.
So, the 2.4 GHz band holds 11 channels that are available in the US and spaced 5 MHz apart. The WiFi works with at least 20 MHz. This means that obtaining non-overlapping channels is necessary. Remember that you should pick the channels 1, 6, and 11.
The situation for the 5G Hz band is a little more complex, but as I’ve said before, it is less crowded due to its 24 non-overlapping channels found at 20 MHz apart.
You can always change these settings and handpick the wanted channels if the router allows you to do so. But do you really need a router that allows you to put your hand into this issue? And if so, do you really know how to perform this action correctly?
Spatial streams and antennas: These two notions can be mixed up. So, A 4×4 MIMO router has 4 transmit antennas, and 4 receive antennas. Also, you will find 3×3 and 2×2 on the 802.11ac routers.
The idea is simple; each antenna sends and receives wireless data to and from the devices. These data signals, also known as spatial streams, are transmitted together over the same channel.
This means that the more antennas, the more data is sent, and therefore, the better the connection.
Again, think about your needs when it comes to the wireless connection and choose accordingly;
MU-MIMO: As you already know, this is a feature only available on 802.11ac. MU-MIMO routers can transfer and receive data to and from multiple gadgets at the same time. This amount is dependent on the number of streams that the router has – up to 4.
However, there are some limitations, though. MU-MIMO cannot transmit multiple streams to the same physical area. You have to separate your devices to utilize MU-MIMO completely.
Beamforming: There are two possibilities here from which you have to choose: explicit or implicit beamforming. The explicit one permits a router to interact back-and-forth with a device by directing a wireless signal right towards it instead of transmitting the signal out in all possible directions and therefore losing strength.
Implicit beamforming, on the other hand, is most suitable for older gadgets that also have this beamforming standard, and that will allow the router to make the best estimate for where the device is placed.
LAN ports: Usually, nowadays, routers will come with Gigabit Ethernet” ports (10/100/1,000) instead of fast Ethernet ports for cable connections.
Again, all this comes with a price, and only you can decide if it is worth it or not.
USB ports: Usually, routers have at least one USB port, but you can find models that have two, while several mesh systems don’t have one at all. These ports are useful to connect devices such as hard drives to make backup data to them. You can use them for other uses as well, such as to host a printer.
However, the number of ports is not the only thing that needs to be taken into consideration, but also the generation of these ports. The most popular ones are the USB 3.0 ports because they can transfer data at up to 640 MBps. The cheaper routers usually have USB 2.0 that performs only at speeds up to 60MBps.
Security: Some routers come with antivirus protection that will keep away possible viruses, ransomware, or malware. This is definitely a factor you should consider when choosing your router and might I say a factor that should take a few extra money out of your pocket.
Control: If you have a child and you want to be aware of how much time is spending on the internet or what he/she is doing while online, you should pick a router that comes with the function for parental control.
Apps: Today, many routers come with apps that will help you install and manage the router more easily. Also, there are some that let you connect with Amazon Alexa and control it through it. Think about how smart you want your router to be and pick the one that suits your expectations.
Installing the Router
Controlling your own router on services such as Verizon Fios can offer you a lot of advantages, as you could already see.
However, the installation of one is not as easy as it might seem or how it is in other internet service providers’ cases because Verizon doesn’t recommend the usage of a third-party router.
If you have the only internet from this provider and not a full package with TV or phone, it is a little easier to handle. Yet, this process can be solved in either case, with a little knowledge.
However, before you start doing anything to your internet connection, I strongly encourage you to contact Verizon and see if the router you are about to buy will work with their network settings.
Remove The Original Router Completely
Usually, if you want to remove completely the router that they give to you, you will have to do some hacking programming that I won’t even start talking about. However, there are some cases in which you have a chance of making it work. I will tell you about them so you can at least try.
So, the first thing that you need to understand is that the plugged-in routers from the FiOS network have a DHCP contract that is temporary and that it is provided to allow the router to connect online. As I’ve said, it is easier if you only have internet subscription and not a full package, so what I am about to tell you can only work in the case of a simple plan
Case 1: Go to your existing Verizon router and take power off, then unplug the Ethernet. Let it like this for a few hours, preferably for 24 hours, and then plug in your Verizon compatible router.
Case 2: Go to your Verizon router and login. After you are in, enable the discharge of the DHCP lease. After this plug-in, the Verizon compatible router with through the Ethernet. Only after that, give the router power.
Set The Verizon Router To Bridge Mode
If you only care about the better features a new router can bring and not about the fee you pay monthly for renting it; there is a much simpler way to solve things.
Instead of replacing the router, Verizon is giving you, you just add the new router to your network. This process is known as the process of making a bridge. In this case, the bridge will be the original Verizon router. It will let the internet pass through it directly from the modem and straight into the Ethernet WAN port that the new router has.
All you have to do in this case, regarding the settings is to put the original Fios router on bridge mode, to customize the LAN settings by turning off the DHCP & Wireless and to connect the new router with an Ethernet cable.
In Conclusion To
The discussion about routers and wireless connections is not an easy one to read on a Sunday morning if you don’t know anything about this subject. However, I hope that I was able to make you understand a little bit more about this subject, and I hope that now you know what kind of model to choose from the Verizon Fios compatible routers list.
If you have questions or opinions on the matter, please feel free to use the comment section below.